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A forged part (forging) is used as a raw material for crane wheel production, involving a great amount of machining to get the parameters of the finished product. It is produced from 65G steel by forging. (See Glossary for Forging)
Actuator (mech.) is an assembly designed to transfer and convert the rotational motion from the motor to the actuator of the process equipment.
Angular velocity is a value characterizing the speed of a rigid object rotation and is directed along the rotation axis in the direction from where the object rotation is seen counterclockwise.
Axis (mech.) is a rod placed in the center of the rotating part of the machine. In mobile mechanisms its one end rests on the wheels passing through their hubs, and the other connects the wheels with the mechanism itself
Bearing is a shaft or axis support locating the position of the rotating or swinging parts of the mechanism in relation to the other parts of it
Bevel gearbox is a bevel gear with intersecting axes, the gear wheels of which has all surfaces conical.
Block (mechanical) is a wheel with a full-circle groove, rotating on itself.
Box (crane) is a part which holds crane wheel bearings and connects the crane frame and the wheel
Brake shaft is a part of any brake mechanism with an axial pressing. And the force operating along the axis of this mechanism creates braking torque.
Braking safety factor for a mechanism of a lifting machine with power drive makes 1,5 at light duty; 1.75 at average duty; 2 at severe duty and 2,5 at extremely heavy duty. The derricking gear breaking safety factor must be not less than 1.5.
Braking system is a system intended to reduce motion speed and/or stop a vehicle or a mechanism. It also allows preventing a vehicle or a mechanism from uncontrolled motion at rest mode.
Bridge (overhead) crane – a crane designed as a top running or under running bridge crane with a truck (hoist). The bridge moves along the crane rails, for example, along the span of the working shop, and the truck along the bridge across the span. Load capacity from 5 to 450 tons
Cast blank (casting) is a blank obtained by hot metal charging into molds where it hardens.
Casting is a technological process of blanks producing (seldom finished parts) which suggests charging of a pre-made mold with a liquid material (metal, alloy, plastic, etc.) and followed by its solidification.
Cavities (mech.) are one of metal wear types. Cavities of different shapes and sizes are formed inside or on the surface of the casting.
Chain transmission (mech.) is a mechanism where mechanical power transmission over distance is carried out by a chain that goes over the sprockets (chain gears).
Cheeks (suspension crane) are side elements in the construction of the suspension hook of the crane connecting the hook with the pulley block.
Clutch sleeve version in accordance with GOST RР 50895-96:
1 – with cylinder bores for short shaft ends acc. to GOST 12080;
2 – with cone ends for short shaft ends acc. to GOST 12081 for couplings type 1 и 3.
When required by a customer’s order it is accepted to produce clutch sleeves with bores for shaft ends of other shapes.
Console (jib) crane is a crane with a swinging or stationary console where a truck moves. Mainly used in industrial workshops and closed warehouses. Load capacity from 4 to 10 tones
Console (mech.) is a build rigidly fixed at one end and free at the opposite end
Crane hook safety latch is a fixture in design of the cargo crane hook that protects cargo from spontaneous falling out of the hook mouth. Safety hook latches, according to GOST 12840-80, are made of two types: spring closure latch and latched locked under gravity. All cranes with load capacity over 25 tons are obligatory assembled with hook latches.
Crane reducer is a type of special reducing gear operated with crane equipment and machinery, working in the crane mode. Marked by the special requirements for the reducer specific load capacity, the load type, the size and weight settings, the easy assembly and reliability of commissioning. Crane reducers.
Crane trolley (cargo) is an obligatory part of the design of the double-beam bridge or double beam gantry cranes with the lifting and load gripping mechanisms. The crane trolley can be a of a winch and telpher type. Bridge and gantry cranes of low and medium operating mode are equipped with crane trolleys of the telpher type, and heavy duty cranes are equipped with the winch type trolleys.
Critical cross-sections of the hook are specified areas of the hook (cross section) undergoing the highest stress when subject to bending and stretching.
Cutting (mech.) is a type of metalworking during which ridges of various shapes and sizes are formed on the surface of the product.
Cylindrical (parallel shaft) reducer is a kind of mechanical reducer operated by the cylindrical gear box and the axis of the driving and driven shafts are parallel.
Cylindrical gear is a gear train with parallel axes where surfaces of all gear wheels are cylindrical.
Driving wheel (leading)) has its standard version with a keyseat
Drum (mechanical) is a clutch gear component for transmitting torque.
Electric motor is a device where electrical energy is converted into mechanical.
Fatigue defect (defects in the metal) is a phenomenon that occurs with a prolonged and strong stress on the metal.
Flange is a protruding part (ledge) of the wheel rim to prevent its derailing
Flange (mech.) is a flat or rectangular ring with evenly spaced bores for bolts and pins, which serves to firm and tight connection of shafts and other rotating parts (flange connection). Flanges are used in pairs (flange kit).
Flange half coupling (mech.) is a part of the coupling rigidly connected with one of the shafts and another half coupling; both half couplings are designed as flanges.
Friction force (mech.) is the resistance force to the relative movement of the contacting surfaces of the bodies. Friction effect is always accompanied by the conversion of the mechanical energy in the internal one, causing heating of the bodies and their environment.
Gantry crane - a lifting crane assembled as a bridge supporting on rigid gantries that moves on rail rail tracks or on a concrete bed. A truck or a hoist installed on the bridge. Used for outdoor warehouses and in construction works. Load capacity up to 800 tons, span up to 170 m.
Gear (mech.) is a system of specifically arranged mechanical elements that transmits rotational energy between shafts. The transmission link that receives motion from the engine-engine is called the lead, the link to which the motion is transmitted is called the slave.
Gear coupling is kind of mechanical couplers with a toothed engagement of connected shafts and rigid compensation of their axial, radial and angular displacements.
Gear coupling with countershaft is a gear coupling where one gear block and one sleeve are replaced by flange coupling half. And the shaft is pressed directly into the coupling half.
Gear motor is an electrical motor and reducer assembled as a single unit.
Gear ratio is the ratio of the greater angular velocity to the least one. The gear ratio number may not be less than one.
Gear ring is a component of gear couplings type MZ and MZP engaged with a hollow gear hub and made as a ring with inner gear row.
Gear train – transfer of the rotational energy through gear wheels that are made by cutting involute shape teeth out of the disc blanks.
Hairline cracks (defects of metal) – one of the defects that violate the continuity of the metal, small cracks from one to several dozen millimeter long. Such cracks can be either on surface or in the depth of a metal sheet.
Heat treatment is the heating of metal to a critical temperature of 700-800 gr. and rapid cooling in oil, water or air stream with a temperature of 500-300 gr.
HFC (high frequency current) is a method of heat treatment when metal surface is exposed to the high frequency currents effect.
High-speed shaft gear (driving) - working name for a part in the gearbox to which rotatory mechanical energy is supplied.
Hoist is a suspended lifting system with a manual or mechanical drive. Can be used both independently and as a lifting mechanism in a variety of lifting cranes. Load capacity up to 5 tons.
Hook mouth diameter – the main dimension while designing a non-standard hook.
Hub (mech.) is the center of a rotating part (flywheel, pulley, gear etc.) having a bore to fit on a shaft or axes.
Hydraulic gear is a set of devices designed for machines and mechanisms driving by means of hydraulic energy.
Power transmission in a hydraulic gear is as follows:
- The drive motor transmits torque to the pump shaft, which energizes the working fluid.
- The working fluid in the hydraulic lines through the control equipment is supplied to the hydraulic motor, where the hydraulic energy is converted into mechanical one.
- The working fluid in the hydraulic lines is returned either to the tank or directly to the pump.
Hydraulic pusher – designed to convert by means of the hydraulic method the electric energy into mechanical linear movement and actuation of the lifting equipment brakes, lifting and transport equipment.
Idle wheel (driven) is a standard wheel without a keyseat
Induction motor – a motor, the main feature of which is a minor change speed at load change.
Input shaft (drive, high speed) - working name for a part to which reduction gear mechanical energy is supplied.
Involute is the curve drawn by a pencil at the end of a tightly stretched thread winded off a stationary circular cylinder.
Key (full) is a fixing element that prevents turning of the mounted part relative to the part it is connected with (usually a shaft).
Keyseat (slot) is a part of a fixing element mating with a key usually has the form of the latter.
Load drum (crane drum) - a device for winding and laying of the crane pull rope.
Low-speed gear (mech.) is the working name of a gear engaged with the low-speed shaft.
Low-speed shaft (mech.) is the working name of a shaft engaged with a low-speed gear.
Low-speed shaft gear (driven, output) is the working name of the part of a reducing gear that delivers the converted mechanical energy.
Middle gear shaft is a working name for a gear shaft located between the input shaft gear and output shaft gear, and transmitting mechanical energy between them.
Mouth (of a hook) – the place where removable load gripping device is seated in the load crane hook inner diameter.
Moving pulleys (mech.) are blocks the axes of which together with the supports can travel in space. As a rule these movable pulleys contain a lifting unit (hook) to which any load is hooked.
Multiple gearing is a mechanical transmission consisting of 2 or more pairs of gears.
Neck (of a hook) is a place where a hook shank goes to the thread (before the first threads). It is the usual place where a hook brakes and thus requires the most careful control during operation.
Non-drive crane wheel (driven) is a floating wheel which rotates about its axes
Non-standard crane wheels Non-standard wheels are those for the production of which forged blanks (forgings) are used. Such wheels include all crane wheels with the tread surface diameter (D) up to 300 mm (260Х70, 260Х80, 200х60, 250х70). Also a forging is used, if crane wheel parameters h and L1 are impossible to be entered into output settings of a stamping.
— h, hub wall thickness. This parameter of a finished wheel may not be less than it is regulated by GOST 28648-90. If the desired fitment bore size is larger than a stamping can allow without breaking GOST norm then a forging is used.
— L1, Fitment bore diameter - the diameter of the bore that the blank already has is taken into consideration while choosing a stamping for production of a specific dimension type of a crane wheel; you cannot produce a crane wheel with a fitment bore diameter smaller than the stamping already has. In this case when a wheel does not match to this stamping parameter, then a forging is used.
Open gearbox (mech.) is a type of a gear transmission operating unprotected from wastes intrusion. Usually with a poor lubricant of thick consistency or even without lubrication.
Operational reliability (of a shoe break) - shoe breaks can be operated in the following conditions:
- at ambient temperatures from -40 to +40 ° C.
- at humidity level of 80% at 20 ° C.
- there must not be any metal and rubber destructing substances in environment.
Pin (mech.) is a non-threaded fastener designed as a short cylindrical rod.
Press-in shaft wheel wheel is an assembly version for a wheel set. This version is offered to the customer in case when he has a condition allowing him to reassemble and accurately install the wheel
Rail-laying car is a special trolley which can replace railway tracks
Reducing gear (mech.) is a device that converts and transmits the torque, designed with one or more mechanical gearboxes, that usually changes angular velocities upward and downward.
Reducing gear housing is a cast iron or welded steel part which takes in all elements of the mechanical transmission (gear wheels, shafts, bearings, etc.). In some cases there are also bearings and gearings lubrication devices or cooling units inside it.
Reducing gear version – reduction ration, assembly version and shaft ends shapes.
Reversibility means convertibility, reflexivity.
Rim (mech.) is a cylindrical edge of a wheel
Rolling surface hardness for the parts that require high wear resistance and high spring-elastic properties. Parts treated by oil quenching and manufactured from steel 65G type require from 320 to 390 HB according to GOST 28648-90.
Screw (in a crane hook assembly) is a part screwing into the hook thread, with the help of which the hook is nutted up in a hoisting mechanism unit. It must be obligatory fixed by a locking plate to avoid screwing off.
Seal (mech.) is a sealing device that is installed in the joints of the object parts, also at shaft input and outputs in the housing of the mechanism.
Shaft (mechanical) – a part designed to maintain other details in order to transfer the rotary moment. A shaft in use experiences bending and torsion
Shaft gear - a part uniting both the shaft and the gear assembled as one unit.
Shank (of a hook) is a hook part that serves to fix the hook.
Sheave (mech.) is a friction (from lat. "frictio") wheel with a rim or a groove along the circle.
Shoe brake is a brake where the shoes pressed against the wheel rim. Used in lifting equipment to stop and hold the shafts of the mechanisms in a locked mode at the idle motor.
Single gearing is a mechanical transmission consisting of one pair of gears (driving and idle gear).
Sleeve bore diameter – a diameter of the place where a hollow sleeve is seated to a shaft.
Sorbitizing is a type of steel heat treatment that involves steel heating above the upper critical point temperature and cooling at a speed of 100 600 °C per min (by air jet or in a liquid medium, heated to 300 500 °C). Used in the treatment of products with raised demands for their mechanical properties
Speed increasing gear is a transmission in which the driven gear angular velocity is greater than the drive gear angular velocity
Speed reducing gear is a transmission in which the driven gear angular velocity is less than the drive gear angular velocity
Sprocket (mechanical) – name of profile tooth wheels in contact with the caterpillar band in a chain drive. Sprockets, unlike gear wheels, do not come into contact with each other.
Stamped blank (stamping) is the input material for the crane wheel production with a provided minimal inlet diameter of the shaft and a slot for a hub, manufactured from 65G steel by stamping. Supplier of stampings JSC "Uralskaya kuznitsa"
Stamping is the process of metal treatment by pressing where parts are formed in a special tool called a stamp press. A finished part obtained by stamping called stamped part (or a stamping).
Standard crane wheel are those in the production of which stamped blanks are used (stampings).
Stationary blocks (mech.) are blocks whose axes are placed in fixed supports and cannot move in space. These blocks are only used for changing the direction of movement of the flexible element (rope, chain). In crane machinery stationary block pulleys are usually fixed on a crane jib.
Steel maek 65G material selection for crane wheels production complies with GOST 28648-90. This very steel brand allows producing wheels with the highest performance.
Tooth annulus (mechanical) – a ring between the tips and fillets of tooth full circle.
Torque (force moment) is a rotating force given by the main engine operating device and transmitted by it to the shaft.
Torque rating is the highest torque transferred by the coupling within its long-term service life at constant load and constant direction of rotation.
Tower crane is a type of crane used in construction works. It has a high mast, a swinging jib and a hoisting winch. They can be of a stationary and traveling type. The mast of a traveling crane rests on the wheeled or caterpillar trucks that move on rails or on the ground. Traveling tower crane capacity reaches up to 100 tons, stationary type up to 400 tons, lifting height up to 150 m and crane radius up to 50 m
Traverse beam (hook assembly) is a detail of the hook block where the hook rests through a thrust ball bearing. Thanks to traverse beam the hook can rotate relative to the traverse beam and hook assembly disks, thus facilitating the securing of the cargo.
Trunnion pin (mech.) is a part of a shaft or an axle where a bearing is located. Trunnion at the end of the shaft is called end journal, in the middle part it is a shaft journal. The end part that receives axial loads is called axle journal.
Volume hardening is a method of heat treatment where the entire volume of the metal ware is exposed.
Wheel hardening depth: hardening of the crane wheel working face, depends on the wheel diameter and makes from 10 to 40 mm.
Wheel kit (crane wheel assembly) is a mechanism that is completely ready for installation on the crane, consisting of a wheel, shaft, bearings, boxes and covers
Winch is a mechanism that transfers its pulling force from a drive drum through a rope, chain, cable or other flexible element.
Worm drive is a mechanism for transmitting rotation between shafts by means of a screw (worm) and an engaged worm wheel.
Worm reducer is a type of mechanical gearbox where a worm gearbox is used and the axis of the driving and driven shafts intersect in plane.
Worm screw (mech.) is a toothed wheel in the shape of a screw for transmitting motion in the worm gearboxes.
Worm wheel is a gear wheel with teeth of a special shape corresponding to the worm that sets it in motion.